Chernihiv (Ukrainian: Чернігів Ukrainian pronunciation: [t͡ʃerˈɲiɦiu̯]), also known as Chernigov (Russian: Чернигов), is a historic city in northern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihivskyi Raion (district) within the oblast. The estimated population of the city is around 299,000 (as of 2006).
The city is situated on the picturesque Desna River. The local climate is temperate continental, the average temperatures of January and July, the coldest and the warmest months of the year, are respectively 19.2° F (-7.1°C) and 66.7° F (+18.7°С). The local climate is temperate continental, the average temperatures of January and July, the coldest and the warmest months of the year, are respectively 19.2 ° F (-7.1 ° C) and 66.7 ° F (+18.7 ° C).
As the center of the Chernihiv Region, the city is an important transportation crossing of roads and railways of both international and national importance. As the center of the Chernihiv Region, the city is an important transportation crossing of roads and railways of both international and national importance. Being situated on the navigable Desna River, Chernihiv has good opportunities to develop waterway transportation. Being situated on the navigable Desna River, Chernihiv has good opportunities to develop waterway transportation.
Chernihiv was first mentioned in the Rus'-Byzantine Treaty (907) (as Черниговъ), but real time of establishment is not known and according to the uncovered by archaeological excavations of a settlement which included the artifacts from the Khazar Khaganate, it have existed at least in the 9th century. Towards the end of the 10th century, the city probably had its own rulers. It was there that the Black Grave, one of the largest and earliest royal mounds in Eastern Europe, was excavated back in the 19th century.
In the southern portion of the Kievan Rus' the city was the second by importance and wealth. From the early 11th century it was the seat of powerful Grand Principality of Chernigov, whose rulers at times vied for power with Kievan Grand Princes, and often overthrew them and took the primary seat in Kiev for themselves. The grand principality was the largest in Kievan Rus and included not only the Severing towns but even such remote regions as Murom, Ryazan and Tmutarakan. The golden age of Chernihiv, when the city population peaked at 25,000, lasted until 1239 when the city was sacked by the hordes of Batu Khan, which started a long period of relative obscurity.
The area fell under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1353. The city was burned again by Crimean khan Meñli I Giray in 1482 and 1497 and in the 15th to 17th centuries it changed hands several times between Lithuania, Muscovy (1408–1420 and from 1503), and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1618–1648), where it was granted Magdeburg rights in 1623 and in 1635 became a seat of Chernihiv Voivodeship. The area's importance increased again in the middle of the 17th century during and after the Khmelnytsky Uprising. In the Hetman State Chernihiv was the city of deployment of Chernihiv Cossack regiment (both a military and territorial unit of the time).
Under the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo the legal suzerainty of the area was ceded to Tsardom of Russia, with Chernihiv remaining an important center of the autonomous Cossack Hetmanate. With the abolishment of the Hetmanate, the city became an ordinary administrative center of the Russian Empire and a capital of local administrative units. The area in general was ruled by the Governor-General appointed from Saint Petersburg, the imperial capital, and Chernihiv was the capital of local namestnichestvo (province) (from 1782), Malorosiyskaya or Little Russian (from 1797) and Chernigov Governorate (from 1808).
The Chernigov Governorate (Russian: Черниговская губернiя; translit.: Chernigovskaya guberniya), also known as the Government of Chernigov, was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the disbanded Malorossiya Governorate with an administrative centre of Chernigov (modern Chernihiv). Its modern borders are roughly consistent of the modern Chernihiv Oblast, but also included a large section of Sumy Oblast and smaller sections of the Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, in addition to most of the Bryansk Oblast of Russia.
According to the census of 1897 there were in the town of Chernihiv about 11,000 Jews in a total population of 27,006. The chief occupations of the Jews are industrial and commercial. In the neighborhood many tobacco-plantations and fruit-gardens are owned by Jews. There are in Chernihiv 1,321 Jewish artisans, including 404 tailors and seamstresses, but the demand for artisan labor is limited to the town. There are 69 Jewish (day-laborers, almost exclusively teamsters. But few are engaged in the factories
Eletsky monastery cathedral was modeled after that of Kiev Pechersk Lavra. Note the contrast between its austere 12th-century walls and baroque 17th-century domes. Chernihiv's architectural monuments chronicle two most flourishing periods in the city's history - those of Kievan Rus' (11th and 12th centuries) and of the Cossack Hetmanate (late 17th and early 18th centuries.)
The oldest church in the city and in the whole of Ukraine is the 5-domed Saviour Cathedral, commissioned in the early 1030s by Mstislav the Bold and completed several decades later by his brother, Yaroslav the Wise. The Cathedral of Sts Boris and Gleb, dating from the mid-12th century, was much rebuilt in succeeding periods, before being restored to its original shape in the 20th century. Likewise built in brick, it has a single dome and six pillars. The crowning achievement of Chernihiv masters was the exquisite Church of St Paraskeba (Pyatnitskaya), constructed at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. This graceful building was seriously damaged in the Second World War; its original medieval outlook was reconstructed to a design by Peter Baranovsky.
The earliest residential buildings in the downtown date from the late 17th century, a period when a Cossack regiment was deployed there. Two most representative residences are those of Polkovnyk Lyzohub (1690s) and Polkovnyk Polubutok (18th century). The former mansion, popularly known as the Mazepa House, used to contain the regiment's chancellery. One of the most profusely decorated Cossack structures is undoubtedly the ecclesiastical collegiums, surmounted by a bell-tower (1702). The archbishop's residence was constructed nearby in the 1780s. St Catherine Church (1715), with its 5 gilded pear domes, traditional for Ukrainian architecture, is thought to have been intended as a memorial to the regiment's exploits during the storm of Azov in 1696.
All through the most trying periods of its history, Chernihiv retained its ecclesiastical importance as the seat of bishopric or archbishopric. At the outskirts of the modern city lie two ancient cave monasteries, formerly used as the bishops' residences.
The caves of the Eletsky Monastery are said to predate those of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Kiev Monastery of the Caves). Its magnificent 6-pillared cathedral was erected at the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries; some traces of its 750-year-old murals may still be seen in the interior. After the domes collapsed in 1611, they were augmented and reconstructed in the Ukrainian baroque style. The wall, monastic cells, and bell-tower all date from the 17th century. The nearby mother superior's house is thought to be the oldest residential building in the Left-Bank Ukraine. The cloister's holiest icon used to be that of Theotokos, who made her epiphany to Svyatoslav of Chernigov on 6 February 1060. The icon, called Eletskaya after the fir wood it was painted upon, was taken to Moscow by Svyatoslav's descendants - Princes Boryatinsky - in 1579.
The nearby cave monastery of St Elijah and the Holy Trinity features a small eponymous church, which was constructed 800 years ago. The roomy Trinity cathedral, one of the most imposing monuments of the Cossack baroque, was erected between 1679 and 1689. Its refectory, with the adjoining church of Presentation to the Temple, was finished by 1679. There are also the 17th-century towered walls, monastic cells, and the 5-tiered belfry from the 1780s.
Other historic abbeys may be visited in the vicinity of Chernihiv; those in Kozelets and Hustynya contain superb samples of Ukrainian national architecture. The area is served by Chernihiv Shestovitsa Airport, and during the Cold War it was the site of Chernigov air base.
THE CATHEDRAL OF THE TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR SAVIOUR - is the oldest Christian Church which has remained in Ukraine. Its construction was begun in 1033-1034 by Prince Mstislav. The cathedral is a majestic eight pieced structure in Byzantine style surmounted by five domes. The cathedral was a religious center of Chernigov principality.
THE CATHEDRAL OF SAINTS BORIS AND GLEB - The Boris and Gleb Cathedral (Borisohlebsky Cathedral) was built by the Chernihiv prince David Svyatoslavich in 12 century on foundation of 11 century. The Boris and Gleb Cathedral (Borisohlebsky Cathedral) was built by the Chernihiv prince David Svyatoslavich in 12 century on foundation of 11 century. As other Chernihiv`s architectural monuments it was destroyed several times and then was rebuilt..
In 1627 the Boris and Gleb Cathedral was transformed into Dominican kostel. In 1672 the bell – tower was attached to the Cathedral. In 18 century it was five – domed. In 18 century it was five - domed. In 1700, during the building of the Chernihiv Collegium, the silver idol was found According to people's beliefs this silver couldn't be used because of it bad, devilry influence.
But people also couldn't throw it out because silver was considered a precious metal. But people also couldn't throw it out because silver was considered a precious metal. So they decided to make silver gates of the iconostas. So they decided to make silver gates of the iconostas.
The Cathedral was extremely suffered during the Second World War. The Cathedral was extremely suffered during the Second World War. In 1952 – 1988 the Cathedral was restored and was renewed into starting forms of the Old Russian architecture.
Outstanding church and political figure Lazar Baranovich was buried here. Outstanding church and political figure Lazar Baranovich was buried here. In addition there is a burial vault of wonder – worker of 17 century St. In addition there is a burial vault of wonder - worker of 17 century St. Feodosy Uglitsky and bishops Dubnevich and Ignatovich. Feodosy Uglitsky and bishops Dubnevich and Ignatovich
THE CHERNIGOV COLLEGE - was built in 1700-1702 in the Ukrainian baroque style and it is decorated with numerous architectural details. It was one of the first secular higher educational establishments in the left-Dnepr-bank Ukraine.
ST.CATHERINE - This monument to the past is located in the central part of historic town near the Dytynets, in the view of Zemlyakiv Avenue and Kyiv-Chernihiv motorway. It is one of the leading architectural dominants of the city.
It was built in honor of heroism of Chernihiv regiment Cossacks showed up during the assault of turkey fortress Azov in 1696 under the commandment of Chernihiv colonel Yakiv Lyzohub. The church was sanctified in 1715 in honor of St. Katherine, who had been respected in Ukraine for a long time.
St. Catherine church hasn’t had great changing. In 1837 the narthex was built to the western façade of the church and the bell tower was erected in 1908 (both were taken apart during the restoration in 1951). It suffered losses in 1941 – 1943 (roofs and the tops of domes were burnt). The restoration works were conducted into 2 phases: 1947 – 1955; 1975 – 1980.
The church is made of bricks; it is cross-shaped, nine-fraction, five-dome. The composition is centurial, pyramidal built: with the highest central dome, and lower ones – over the faceted sleeves of architectural cross. So, its composition reminds a wooden Ukrainian church with five octahedral capacities – octahedrons each crowned with dome combined in one plastic unity. Thanks to such pyramidal construction the church looks tender, elegant and solemn.
The facades are a characteristic feature of the church. The main role in their decoration is played by portal and windows margins: triangular pediments, frames, shallow-cut cornices. Modeled ornamentation is not used in the church, common and circle brick, which replaced plinth, is used both as building and ornamental material. The facades are plastered and limed.
The characteristic feature of the interior is its opening upwards. It is a five-chamber pillar less temple crowned by five domes. The top is designed in traditional Ukrainian style – with fractures. The walls are whitewashed. The domes and crosses are gilded
St. Catherine church in Chernihiv is the greatest monument of Ukrainian (Cossack) renaissance of the XVII-XVIII centuries, which has authentically remained; it produced decisive influence on the development of Ukrainian church architecture of the XVIII century and it still plays the role of city building dominant of the historic part of the town
Chernihiv is located on the Desna River with plenty of lakes and forests around it, and the centuries-old history reflected in both its architecture and art make Chernihiv a city that visitors to Ukraine must see, Because of its common borders with Russia and Belarus, Chernihiv is considered the Northern Gate of Ukraine. This status stems from a cooperation is possible because of a cross-border association called Euro-region "Dnipro" (Dnepr), which consists of Chernihiv Oblast (Ukraine), Bryansk Oblast (Russia), and Gomel Oblast (Belarus). Chernihiv lies only110 kilometers from Russia and Belarus, and it’s only 209 kilometers by train or 141 kilometers by bus to Kyiv, the nation’s capital. These features make the city an important transportation and international railway crossroads. Chernihiv has a passenger and cargo railway station, three bus stations, and a river port. Chernihiv - the administrative, economic and cultural center of Chernihiv Oblast – has an area 71, 3 km2, a population of nearly 300,000 people, and it is divided into two administrative districts: Desnyansky and Novozavodsky.