Melitopol (Ukrainian: Мелітополь, translit. Melitopol’, Russian: Мелитополь) is a city in the Zaporizhia Oblast of the southeastern Ukraine. It is situated on the Molochna River that flows through the eastern edge of the city and into the Molochnyi Liman, which eventually joins the Sea of Azov. The city was formerly named Kyzyl-Yar until 1816, and Novoalexandrovka until 1842. Serving as the administrative center of the Melitopolskyi Raion, the city itself is directly subordinate to the oblast center. The estimated population as of 2007 is around 158,700. Generally, the Russian language is spoken in the city. Melitopol is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities program.
Melitopol industry includes the mechanical engineering (machine-tool constructing, motor and others factories.); food, light industry, manufacture of building materials. There are two high schools in Melitopol - Taurian state agro-technological university and the Melitopol state pedagogical university.
Melitopol land has a constant supply of water and is extremely fertile. There are, of course, other industries, such as engine building factories, tractor part manufacturers and refrigeration manufacturers found in Melitopol, but farming is the dominant industry. Here you will find food processing plants, vegetable farms, fruit orchards and flour mills. Agriculture is the foundation of the economy in Melitopol and contributes to the economy of the Zaporizhzhya Region. The Motorny Factory is one of the plants that the city is very proud of, as it manufactures and exports a large number of vehicles each year.
Melitopol also has a few attractions and noteworthy tourist sights to draw visitors. Many locals and visitors flock to Gorky Park, which was constructed in 1927. Here there are beautiful gardens and flowerbeds to marvel at, while surrounded by the peace and tranquility of the park. The fountains at Victory Square should not be missed, and neither should the Park of Immortal Glory. It was built in honor of the soldiers that did not return home from the Great Patriotic War and the eternal flame that burns by the tomb serves to keep their memory alive. If you are uncertain of where to go, all you need to do is find B. Khmelnitsky Street. It is Melitopol’s main street, lined with restaurants, shops, monuments and neon advertisements.
Other historical places of interest are as follows: The Institute of Agricultural Mechanization was erected in the year 1930 and the Pedagogical Institute and Museum was founded in 1922. The Museum of Regional Study has a great collection of paintings, books, documents and photographs on exhibit. In 1954, the Scythians royal burial mound, named Melitopol’kurhan, was excavated. It is believed to date back to the 4th century and is a fascinating site to visit.
Melitopol is a city that has embraced modernization and has protected its rich and interesting history. It has become a city steeped in culture, art and science, and has a diverse range of attractions and facilities to offer visitors. It is filled with adventure, excitement and exploration. And has a proud and warm community.
In ancient times, there was a small Noghai aul of Kyzyl-Yar where the modern Melitopol is settled. In July 1769, Russian military commanders built a redoubt there, and Zaporizhia Cossacks carried out their duty service there. On February 2, 1784, Ekaterina II issued the decree to create the Taurian Province on the lands that had been won back. The deputy of Novorossiya His Highness Prince Potemkin signed the relation to establish a town that very year - and Cossacks' families and those of retired soldiers of Suvorov settled on the right bank of the Molochna River. In 1816, the settlement got the name sloboda of Novoalexandrovka. Its population was increasing due to the importation of peasants from the northern provinces of the Ukraine and Russia. On January 7, 1842, the sloboda was recognized as a town and received the new name of Melitopol after a port city of Melita (from Greek Μέλι (meli) - "honey") which had been situated on the mouth of the Molochna River. At the end of the XIX century, the Honey-city had been developed as a trade center - there were some banks, credit organizations and wholesale stores. The largest enterprises in the city at the time were the iron foundry and the Brothers Klassen's machinery construction factory (1886), the railroad depot and the workshops.
Melitopol in World War II
In 1941, the Soviet Union was attacked by Nazi Germany. The city became strategically important due to its location. The Red Army was not ready for the war and had to retreat. The Nazis occupied Melitopol on October 6, 1941.
Melitopol has a railroad station that serves as the transit point for passengers going from Moscow to the Crimea and back. The city is also called the "gateway to the Crimea".
The city's cantonment has an aerodrome, which is not used for passenger service. There is present a park of Il-76 (Ukrainian: Іл-76, Russian: Ил-76) transport planes.
The city has two bus stations: the more new intercity station and the old station of local buses. Two highways lead through Melitopol: The M14 Odesa-Novoazovsk Highway and the M26 Kharkov-Simferopol National Highway.
The marshrutkas are the sole of the city's public transport. They run 34 routes. They work from 5:00 a.m. till 12:30 a.m. (from 05:30 till 00:30). Formerly, in the days of the USSR, there were buses of Ikarus, LiAZ, LAZ, and PAZ running around 15 routes.The common length of the roads of Melitopol is 333 km, 70% of them do not meet the basic requirements.
The basic feature of climatic conditions of the city is hot summer, moderately cold winter and insufficient humidifying. Monthly average temperature of air of July is about +23C. Duration of the summer period when the daily average temperature exceeds +15C is about 126-138 days on a year. Monthly average temperature of January is about -4C. The city constantly improves its appearance - facades and sidewalks near shops, cafe, restaurants, the Internet-clubs and offices are ordered.
The "Stone Grave" ("Kamena Mohyla" in Ukrainian) is the most famous attraction in the entire region. This natural rock formation was formed millions of years ago, creating what appeared to be one enormous "stone grave." Later, early humans used the mound as a religious site, sacrificing animals atop one of the central stones. Today, visitors are free to climb all over the mound, like an enormous stone jungle-Jim. You can crawl through sandy caves underneath or picnic in the scenic grassy fields around it. Be sure to ask someone where the cave paintings are. They're hidden in little crannies and caves and can be rather hard to find, but, because these "paintings" were actually carved into the rocks themselves, are still very impressively well-preserved.
Melitopol Regional History Museum - The museum houses a huge collection of documents, photographs, books and paintings reflecting the history of Melitopol. Its collection reflects the history of our town, the life and ideals of its people. It periodically holds exhibitions of the art of various countries and of individual outstanding artists. The museum collections cover archeology and natural history of Melitopol. It is located in the building of the 19th century
Gorky Park - Is a favorite spot with the citizens of Melitopol. They enjoy walking in the park. Stroll along its shared avenues or by its large flowerbeds, with their magnificent display from early spring till late in autumn. Here you can see young mothers with prams, old women chatting or reading peacefully. This park is the centre of Melitopol. Green, fresh and beautiful it is visited by many people.
Victory Square - is the heart of the city. It is especially impressive on public holidays. It is popular with visitors who come to relax by fountains.
The Park of Immortal Glory - is a simple and dignified memorial to the soldiers who died for our country in the Great Patriotic War. It is here that all people lay flowers and wreaths. You’ll see the eternal flame burning at the tomb of and sometimes you can watch guardsmen here.
B. Khmelnitsky Street - Is the main street of Melitopol with its famous monuments, hotels, restaurants and shops. It is especially beautiful at night, when the lights are blazing. It is famous for its brightly lit neon advertisements at night. In Melitopol you’ll have no difficulty in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening.